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Nasal Mites for Dog Last updated: 2018-02-20

Species

  • Pneumonyssoides caninum (canine nasal mite)
 

  • Pneumonyssoides caninum lives in the nasal and paranasal sinuses of the dog. Mites are present most often in the ethmoid and frontal sinuses.  Published reports suggest that P. caninum is distributed worldwide.

Overview of Life Cycle

  • Adult mites are non-burrowing and live on the mucosa of nasal cavities and sinuses. They feed on the keratin layer of the epidermis. Mites are highly mobile and easily transmitted by direct contact.
  • Mites have been found on fleas, lice, and flies thus an indirect mode of transmission remains possible.

Stages

  • Stages include egg, larva, nymph, and adult. All stages occur within the nasal passages or sinuses.
  • Adults are 1 to 1.5 mm long, light yellow, and visible to the naked eye. They have long legs that extend beyond the edges of the body, and their overall appearance is similar to that of the avian mites, Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus.
Canine Nasal Mites

Pneumonyssoides caninum mites in the frontal sinuses of a dog (Blagburn et al., 1982).

Disease

  • Although infested dogs may present without clinical signs, sneezing, reverse sneezing, head-shaking, coughing, rhinitis, nasal discharge and impaired sense of smell may accompany infestations. None of these signs are unique to nasal mite. Other agents or diseases may cause similar signs.

Prevalence

  • Prevalences as high as 24% have been reported in some dog populations.
  • Numbers of cases often increase as veterinarians become more skilled at recognizing infestations.

Host Associations and Transmission Between Hosts

  • This mite appears to be restricted to dogs. It is likely that transmission occurs by direct contact. There are no apparent age, sex, or breed predilections. Parasites can survive up to 19 days off the host.

Prepatent Period and Environmental Factors

  • The prepatent period is unknown. Mites may survive off the host for several weeks.

Site of Infection and Pathogenesis

  • Mites are found in the nasal passages and paranasal sinuses. Although infested dogs may present without clinical signs, sneezing, reverse sneezing, head-shaking, coughing, rhinitis, nasal discharge and impaired sense of smell may accompany infestations. Other agents or diseases may cause similar signs. 

Diagnosis

  • Diagnosis is confirmed by observing mites on the external nares. Mites may be found in mucus or watery secretions from the nose or in mucus sneezed onto the examination table.
  • Rhinoscopic examination may reveal the mites crawling in the nasal cavity (Blagburn et al., 1982).
  • It is often stated that an external heat source sometimes draws the mites from the nares.

Treatment

  • Milbemycin oxime (0.5-1.0 mg/kg orally once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks) was highly effective.
  •  Infested dogs also have been treated successfully with ivermectin (200 μg/kg) and Selamectin (3 X 6-24 mg/kg every 14 days).
  •  Imidacloprid/moxidectin is likely to have efficacy.

Control and Prevention

  • Selamectin and imidacloprid/moxidectin would likely prevent infestations with these parasites.

Public Health Considerations

  • No human health hazard appears to be associated with these mites. 

References

  • Blagburn BL, Didier PJ, Todd KS. Pneumonyssoides caninum in a dog. Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Clinician. 1982; 77: 768-769.
  • Gunnarsson LK, Moller LC, Einarsson AM et al. Clinical efficacy of milbemycin oxime in the treatment of nasal mite infection in dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 1999;35:81-84.
  • Gunnarsson L, Zakrisson G, Christenson D et al. Efficacy of selamectin in the treatment of nasal mite (Pneumonyssoides caninum) infection in dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association.2004;40:400-404.

Species

  • Pneumonyssoides caninum (canine nasal mite)
 

  • Pneumonyssoides caninum lives in the nasal and paranasal sinuses of the dog. Mites are present most often in the ethmoid and frontal sinuses.  Published reports suggest that P. caninum is distributed worldwide.

Overview of Life Cycle

  • Adult mites are non-burrowing and live on the mucosa of nasal cavities and sinuses. They feed on the keratin layer of the epidermis. Mites are highly mobile and easily transmitted by direct contact.
  • Mites have been found on fleas, lice, and flies thus an indirect mode of transmission remains possible.

Stages

  • Stages include egg, larva, nymph, and adult. All stages occur within the nasal passages or sinuses.
  • Adults are 1 to 1.5 mm long, light yellow, and visible to the naked eye. They have long legs that extend beyond the edges of the body, and their overall appearance is similar to that of the avian mites, Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus.
Canine Nasal Mites

Pneumonyssoides caninum mites in the frontal sinuses of a dog (Blagburn et al., 1982).

Disease

  • Although infested dogs may present without clinical signs, sneezing, reverse sneezing, head-shaking, coughing, rhinitis, nasal discharge and impaired sense of smell may accompany infestations. None of these signs are unique to nasal mite. Other agents or diseases may cause similar signs.

Prevalence

  • Prevalences as high as 24% have been reported in some dog populations.
  • Numbers of cases often increase as veterinarians become more skilled at recognizing infestations.

Host Associations and Transmission Between Hosts

  • This mite appears to be restricted to dogs. It is likely that transmission occurs by direct contact. There are no apparent age, sex, or breed predilections. Parasites can survive up to 19 days off the host.

Prepatent Period and Environmental Factors

  • The prepatent period is unknown. Mites may survive off the host for several weeks.

Site of Infection and Pathogenesis

  • Mites are found in the nasal passages and paranasal sinuses. Although infested dogs may present without clinical signs, sneezing, reverse sneezing, head-shaking, coughing, rhinitis, nasal discharge and impaired sense of smell may accompany infestations. Other agents or diseases may cause similar signs. 

Diagnosis

  • Diagnosis is confirmed by observing mites on the external nares. Mites may be found in mucus or watery secretions from the nose or in mucus sneezed onto the examination table.
  • Rhinoscopic examination may reveal the mites crawling in the nasal cavity (Blagburn et al., 1982).
  • It is often stated that an external heat source sometimes draws the mites from the nares.

Treatment

  • Milbemycin oxime (0.5-1.0 mg/kg orally once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks) was highly effective.
  •  Infested dogs also have been treated successfully with ivermectin (200 μg/kg) and Selamectin (3 X 6-24 mg/kg every 14 days).
  •  Imidacloprid/moxidectin is likely to have efficacy.

Control and Prevention

  • Selamectin and imidacloprid/moxidectin would likely prevent infestations with these parasites.

Public Health Considerations

  • No human health hazard appears to be associated with these mites. 

References

  • Blagburn BL, Didier PJ, Todd KS. Pneumonyssoides caninum in a dog. Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Clinician. 1982; 77: 768-769.
  • Gunnarsson LK, Moller LC, Einarsson AM et al. Clinical efficacy of milbemycin oxime in the treatment of nasal mite infection in dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 1999;35:81-84.
  • Gunnarsson L, Zakrisson G, Christenson D et al. Efficacy of selamectin in the treatment of nasal mite (Pneumonyssoides caninum) infection in dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association.2004;40:400-404.